project: Add infrastructure for recording CXX compiler features
Add a feature test using the compiler macros and the preprocessor to determine available features. Add a CMAKE_CXX_COMPILE_FEATURES variable which contains all features known to the loaded compiler, and a CMAKE_CXX_KNOWN_FEATURES variable containing all features known to CMake. Add language standard specific variables for internal use to determine the standard-specific compile flags to use. This will be extended to other languages in the future. Follow-up commits will add features which will be recorded by the feature test.
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